Yale Babylonian Collection (YB7289) 1700 BCE
Plimpton 322 1800 BCE
Ahmes (~1680-1620 BCE in Egypt) and Ancient Egyptian mathematics
Accurate reckoning: the entrance into knowledge of all existing things and
all obscure secrets.
Quoted in A B Chase, Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Reston Va.
The 'hsuan-thu' [Zhou Bi Suan Jing
(1046-256 BCE with commentary added
Baudhayana (8th century BCE in India) and
Baudhayana Sulba Sutra
Hayashi, Takao (2005), "Indian Mathematics", in Flood, Gavin, The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 616 pages, pp. 360-375, 360-375, ISBN 9781405132510.
geometry is filled with symmetric and geometric figures.
Hunter-gatherers of the Kalahari desertin southern Africa learned to
track animals by the shape of their footprints and dropping -
what animal passed by, how long ago, if it was hungry or not, etc.
Liebenberg, p. 45,in 1990, concludes that this type of
science may have been practiced long ago
Euclid of Alexandria (~325-265 BCE) Ancient Greek Mathematics
The laws of nature are but the mathematical thoughts of God.
Mathematical Journey by Stanley Gudder (p. 112)
They say that Ptolemy once asked him if there were a shorted way to study geometry than the Elements, to which he replied that there was no royal road to geometry.
Proclus Commentary on Euclid's Elements, book ii. chap. iv.
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (now Shahhat Libya) 276-194 BCE
A 19th century reproduction of Eratosthenes' map of the
world [Jeananda, Col. Enchanted Learning. 2005. 3 Mar. 2005 http://www.enchantedlearning.com/africa/egypt/outlinemap/]
Thus may it be, and let any one who sees this offering say "This is the gift of Eratosthenes of Cyrene"
From a column at Alexandria with an epigram
[T L Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics (2 vols.) (Oxford, 1921)]
Mathematics - they made remakable and accurate astronomical
measurements. Here is a resource on
Maya Geometry in the Classroom:
Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (973 - 1048 in
Uzbekistan and Afganistan)
and Arabic/Islamic Mathematics
The chronology of ancient nations and their history
Edinburgh University Library MS 161: 1307-8
The number of sciences is great, and it may be still greater if the public
mind is directed towards them...
when people not only honor science itself, but also its
The present times, however, are not of this kind. They are the very opposite,
and therefore it is quite impossible that a new science or any new kind of
research should arise in our days. What we have of sciences is nothing but the
scanty remains of bygone better times.
India, by Edward C. Sachau, 2 vol. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co
Ltd., London. 1910
He found the radius of the earth to be 6339.6 km, a value not obtained in
the West until the 16th century. He used height of a mountain, the angle
with the horizon, and the law of sines.